Various demographic factors' effects on odds of American Indians being employed, ages 25–54, 2009–2011

Percent increase/decrease in odds
of employment, relative to reference category*
Basic demographics
Latino 28%
Male 48%
Agea 7%
Age squareda 0%
Personal characteristics
Marriedb 19%
Never marriedb -22%
Number of childrena -1%
Veteran 20%
Has a disability -78%
Human capital
Speaks only English at home 15%
GEDc 50%
High school diplomac 108%
Some collegec 192%
Associate degreec 269%
Bachelor’s degreec 427%
Advanced degreec 607%
Urbanicity and reservation status
Central cityd -4%
Suburband 14%
Lives on or close to a reservation -7%
State of residence (reference: states without tribal lands)
Alabama -10%
Alaska 0%
Arizona -29%
California -24%
Colorado 0%
Connecticut 6%
Florida -12%
Idaho -5%
Illinoise 0%
Iowa 0%
Kansas 30%
Louisiana 3%
Maine 0%
Massachusetts 0%
Michigan -16%
Minnesota 0%
Mississippi 50%
Montana -11%
Nebraska 64%
Nevada -14%
New Mexico -10%
New York 0%
North Carolina -9%
North Dakota -13%
Oklahoma 25%
Oregon 2%
Rhode Island 13%
South Carolina -9%
South Dakota -24%
Texas 4%
Utah -32%
Washington -13%
Wisconsin 8%
Wyoming 33%

* Except where otherwise noted, the reference category is the opposite of the category indicated in the table. For example, female is the reference category for male, non-Latino is the reference category for Latino, etc. Reference categories are otherwise demographically similar to the categories indicated in the table.

There is no reference category for these variables.

The reference category is separated, divorced, or widowed.

The reference category is less than a high school diploma.

The reference category is central city status unknown, not in a metropolitan area, and metropolitan status not identifiable.

Illinois does not have tribal lands; however, because many American Indians were relocated to Chicago in the mid-20th century, we include it in this analysis.

Note: Percent increase/decrease in odds are derived from odds ratios for the sum of the main and interaction effects. Categories where the change in likelihood is not statistically significant are indicated as having a 0 percent change. These data include American Indian multiracials and Hispanic American Indians, but exclude the foreign born.

Source: Author's analysis of American Community Survey data from Ruggles et al. (2013)

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