Mandatory arbitration in U.S. workplaces, by industry

Industry Mandatory arbitration
Construction 37.7%**
Manufacturing 52.9%
Wholesale trade 52.9%
Retail trade 57.1%
Transportation 51.3%
Information 59.1%
Finance, insurance, and real estate 48.5%
Business services 61.1%
Education and health 62.1%*
Leisure and hospitality 54.0%
Other services 48.5%

* p < 0.10; ** p < 0.05

Notes: Percentages indicate the share of workplaces with mandatory arbitration policies in each industry. The symbols * and ** indicate that the adoption of mandatory arbitration is significantly different from the other categories in the table combined at the 0.10 level and 0.05 level, respectively. Classifications are based on two-digit NAICS codes. Industries with fewer than 20 observations in the data set are not reported because sample sizes are too small to yield reliable estimates.

Source: Author’s original survey data (see the methodological appendix)

View the underlying data on