Mandatory arbitration in U.S. workplaces, by average employee pay level

Average hourly wage level Mandatory arbitration
Less than $13.00 64.5%**
$13.00–$16.99 52.9%
$17.00–$22.49 47.7%*
$22.50 and greater 54.1%

* p < 0.10; ** p < 0.05

Notes: Percentages indicate the share of workplaces that have mandatory arbitration policies by average wage earned by employees at those workplaces. The symbols * and ** indicate that the adoption of mandatory arbitration is significantly different from the other categories in the table combined at the 0.10 level and 0.05 level, respectively. Each row represents a quartile of the establishments surveyed (that is, average pay levels among the survey respondents are divided into quartiles) and average annual salaries reported by respondents are converted to equivalent hourly wages for ease of comparison.

Source: Author’s original survey data (see the methodological appendix)

View the underlying data on