Demographic characteristics of white workers affected by an increase of the federal minimum wage to $15 by 2025

Group Total estimated workforce (thousands) Directly affected (thousands) Share of group directly affected Indirectly affected (thousands) Share of group indirectly affected Total affected (thousands) Share of group who are affected Group’s share of total affected
All workers 89,609 10,897 12.2% 5,617 6.3% 16,514 18.4% 100.0%
Gender
Women 43,466 6,789 15.6% 3,450 7.9% 10,239 23.6% 62.0%
Men 46,143 4,108 8.9% 2,167 4.7% 6,275 13.6% 38.0%
Age
Age 19 or younger 3,069 1,831 59.7% 195 6.3% 2,026 66.0% 12.3%
Age 20 or older 86,540 9,065 10.5% 5,423 6.3% 14,488 16.7% 87.7%
Ages 16–24 11,147 5,110 45.8% 1,213 10.9% 6,323 56.7% 38.3%
Ages 25–39 27,715 2,805 10.1% 2,000 7.2% 4,805 17.3% 29.1%
Ages 40–54 28,244 1,336 4.7% 1,226 4.3% 2,562 9.1% 15.5%
Age 55 or older 22,502 1,645 7.3% 1,178 5.2% 2,824 12.5% 17.1%
Family status
Married parent 22,567 1,091 4.8% 888 3.9% 1,979 8.8% 12.0%
Single parent 5,973 1,081 18.1% 601 10.1% 1,682 28.2% 10.2%
Married, no children 26,994 1,626 6.0% 1,280 4.7% 2,906 10.8% 17.6%
Unmarried, no children 34,076 7,099 20.8% 2,847 8.4% 9,947 29.2% 60.2%
Education
Less than high school 4,707 1,842 39.1% 441 9.4% 2,283 48.5% 13.8%
High school 21,281 4,151 19.5% 2,151 10.1% 6,301 29.6% 38.2%
Some college, no degree 20,398 3,641 17.9% 1,762 8.6% 5,404 26.5% 32.7%
Associate degree 8,947 758 8.5% 590 6.6% 1,348 15.1% 8.2%
Bachelor’s degree or higher 34,276 505 1.5% 673 2.0% 1,178 3.4% 7.1%
Family income
Less than $25,000 7,959 3,425 43.0% 1,201 15.1% 4,626 58.1% 28.0%
$25,000–$49,999 14,773 2,235 15.1% 1,663 11.3% 3,898 26.4% 23.6%
$50,000–$74,999 15,564 1,631 10.5% 1,032 6.6% 2,663 17.1% 16.1%
$75,000–$99,999 13,481 1,118 8.3% 653 4.8% 1,771 13.1% 10.7%
$100,000–$149,999 18,796 1,258 6.7% 631 3.4% 1,890 10.1% 11.4%
$150,000 or more 18,288 849 4.6% 388 2.1% 1,237 6.8% 7.5%
Family income-to-poverty ratio
At or below the poverty line 4,687 2,530 54.0% 488 10.4% 3,018 64.4% 18.3%
100–199% poverty 8,952 2,722 30.4% 1,488 16.6% 4,211 47.0% 25.5%
200–399% poverty 25,890 3,164 12.2% 2,191 8.5% 5,355 20.7% 32.4%
400% or above 50,080 2,480 5.0% 1,450 2.9% 3,930 7.8% 23.8%
Work hours
Part-time (< 20 hours) 5,505 1,840 33.4% 488 8.9% 2,327 42.3% 14.1%
Mid-time (20–34 hours) 12,718 4,329 34.0% 1,407 11.1% 5,737 45.1% 34.7%
Full-time (35+ hours) 71,386 4,727 6.6% 3,722 5.2% 8,450 11.8% 51.2%
Industry
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting 1,232 168 13.6% 72 5.9% 240 19.5% 1.5%
Construction 4,749 241 5.1% 201 4.2% 442 9.3% 2.7%
Manufacturing 10,160 565 5.6% 456 4.5% 1,021 10.0% 6.2%
Wholesale trade 2,558 176 6.9% 120 4.7% 295 11.5% 1.8%
Retail trade 10,500 2,719 25.9% 991 9.4% 3,710 35.3% 22.5%
Transportation, warehousing, utilities 4,444 229 5.1% 182 4.1% 411 9.2% 2.5%
Information 2,034 104 5.1% 56 2.8% 160 7.9% 1.0%
Finance, insurance, real estate 6,210 224 3.6% 189 3.0% 413 6.6% 2.5%
Professional, scientific, management, technical services 6,454 166 2.6% 123 1.9% 288 4.5% 1.7%
Administrative, support, and waste management 2,754 425 15.4% 221 8.0% 646 23.5% 3.9%
Education 9,969 755 7.6% 396 4.0% 1,151 11.5% 7.0%
Health care 12,528 1,484 11.8% 798 6.4% 2,282 18.2% 13.8%
Arts, entertainment, recreational services 1,930 445 23.1% 204 10.6% 649 33.6% 3.9%
Accommodation 736 206 27.9% 103 14.0% 309 42.0% 1.9%
Restaurants and food service 5,052 2,235 44.2% 972 19.2% 3,208 63.5% 19.4%
Other services 3,590 638 17.8% 422 11.8% 1,061 29.5% 6.4%
Public administration 4,710 118 2.5% 110 2.3% 229 4.9% 1.4%
Tipped status
Nontipped workers 87,368 9,954 11.4% 4,577 5.2% 14,531 16.6% 88.0%
Tipped worker 2,241 942 42.0% 1,040 46.4% 1,982 88.5% 12.0%
Sector
For-profit 66,624 9,322 14.0% 4,714 7.1% 14,036 21.1% 85.0%
Nonprofit 8,876 813 9.2% 422 4.7% 1,235 13.9% 7.5%
Government 14,109 762 5.4% 482 3.4% 1,243 8.8% 7.5%

Notes: Values reflect the population likely to be affected by the proposed change in the federal minimum wage. Wage changes resulting from scheduled state and local minimum wage laws are accounted for by EPI’s Minimum Wage Simulation Model. Totals may not sum due to rounding. Shares calculated from unrounded values. Directly affected workers will see their wages rise as the new minimum wage rate will exceed their current hourly pay. Indirectly affected workers have a wage rate just above the new minimum wage (between the new minimum wage and 115% of the new minimum). They will receive a raise as employer pay scales are adjusted upward to reflect the new minimum wage.

Source: Economic Policy Institute Wage Simulation Model; see Technical Methodology by Cooper, Mokhiber, and Zipperer (2019).

View the underlying data on epi.org.