Demographic characteristics of women of color workers affected by an increase of the federal minimum wage to $15 by 2025

Group Total estimated workforce (thousands) Directly affected (thousands) Share of group directly affected Indirectly affected (thousands) Share of group indirectly affected Total affected (thousands) Share of group who are affected Group’s share of total affected
All women of color workers 29,989 6,431 21.4% 2,309 7.7% 8,740 29.1% 100.0%
Age
Age 19 or younger 1,193 580 48.6% 56 4.7% 636 53.4% 7.3%
Age 20 or older 28,797 5,851 20.3% 2,253 7.8% 8,104 28.1% 92.7%
Ages 16–24 4,724 2,054 43.5% 346 7.3% 2,400 50.8% 27.5%
Ages 25–39 11,127 2,210 19.9% 917 8.2% 3,128 28.1% 35.8%
Ages 40–54 9,427 1,369 14.5% 702 7.4% 2,071 22.0% 23.7%
Age 55 or older 4,712 798 16.9% 343 7.3% 1,142 24.2% 13.1%
Family status
Married parent 6,554 996 15.2% 469 7.1% 1,464 22.3% 16.8%
Single parent 5,635 1,564 27.8% 527 9.4% 2,091 37.1% 23.9%
Married, no children 5,589 811 14.5% 407 7.3% 1,218 21.8% 13.9%
Unmarried, no children 12,212 3,060 25.1% 906 7.4% 3,966 32.5% 45.4%
Education
Less than high school 3,954 1,570 39.7% 300 7.6% 1,870 47.3% 21.4%
High school 7,136 2,276 31.9% 782 11.0% 3,059 42.9% 35.0%
Some college, no degree 7,511 1,906 25.4% 725 9.6% 2,631 35.0% 30.1%
Associate degree 2,747 419 15.2% 244 8.9% 663 24.1% 7.6%
Bachelor’s degree or higher 8,642 260 3.0% 257 3.0% 518 6.0% 5.9%
Family income
Less than $25,000 4,893 2,378 48.6% 428 8.7% 2,806 57.3% 32.1%
$25,000–$49,999 6,986 1,725 24.7% 807 11.5% 2,532 36.2% 29.0%
$50,000–$74,999 5,475 1,011 18.5% 466 8.5% 1,477 27.0% 16.9%
$75,000–$99,999 3,915 536 13.7% 268 6.8% 804 20.5% 9.2%
$100,000–$149,999 4,545 457 10.0% 220 4.8% 677 14.9% 7.7%
$150,000 or more 3,908 216 5.5% 108 2.8% 323 8.3% 3.7%
Family income-to-poverty ratio
At or below the poverty line 3,437 1,758 51.2% 226 6.6% 1,985 57.7% 22.7%
100–199% poverty 6,114 2,214 36.2% 741 12.1% 2,955 48.3% 33.8%
200–399% poverty 10,069 1,786 17.7% 953 9.5% 2,739 27.2% 31.3%
400% or above 10,369 673 6.5% 388 3.7% 1,061 10.2% 12.1%
Work hours
Part-time (< 20 hours) 1,963 571 29.1% 129 6.6% 700 35.6% 8.0%
Mid-time (20–34 hours) 5,765 2,051 35.6% 466 8.1% 2,517 43.7% 28.8%
Full-time (35+ hours) 22,262 3,810 17.1% 1,714 7.7% 5,524 24.8% 63.2%
Industry
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting 263 58 21.9% 20 7.7% 78 29.6% 0.9%
Construction 267 41 15.3% 18 6.7% 59 22.0% 0.7%
Manufacturing 2,138 432 20.2% 189 8.9% 621 29.0% 7.1%
Wholesale trade 483 83 17.2% 34 6.9% 116 24.1% 1.3%
Retail trade 3,595 1,232 34.3% 284 7.9% 1,517 42.2% 17.4%
Transportation, warehousing, utilities 988 127 12.9% 71 7.2% 198 20.1% 2.3%
Information 476 52 11.0% 23 4.8% 75 15.8% 0.9%
Finance, insurance, real estate 1,949 158 8.1% 101 5.2% 260 13.3% 3.0%
Professional, scientific, management, technical services 1,420 79 5.5% 46 3.3% 125 8.8% 1.4%
Administrative, support, and waste management 1,346 410 30.4% 116 8.7% 526 39.1% 6.0%
Education 3,270 444 13.6% 169 5.2% 613 18.8% 7.0%
Health care 7,227 1,337 18.5% 491 6.8% 1,829 25.3% 20.9%
Arts, entertainment, recreational services 530 149 28.2% 63 11.8% 212 40.0% 2.4%
Accommodation 644 246 38.2% 76 11.8% 322 50.0% 3.7%
Restaurants and food service 2,621 1,144 43.7% 335 12.8% 1,479 56.4% 16.9%
Other services 1,272 360 28.3% 213 16.7% 573 45.0% 6.6%
Public administration 1,501 79 5.3% 59 4.0% 138 9.2% 1.6%
Tipped status
Nontipped workers 28,779 5,946 20.7% 1,848 6.4% 7,794 27.1% 89.2%
Tipped worker 1,210 485 40.1% 461 38.1% 946 78.2% 10.8%
Sector
For-profit 22,232 5,519 24.8% 1,908 8.6% 7,427 33.4% 85.0%
Nonprofit 2,779 374 13.4% 154 5.6% 528 19.0% 6.0%
Government 4,978 539 10.8% 247 5.0% 785 15.8% 9.0%

Notes: Values reflect the population likely to be affected by the proposed change in the federal minimum wage. Wage changes resulting from scheduled state and local minimum wage laws are accounted for by EPI’s Minimum Wage Simulation Model. Totals may not sum due to rounding. Shares calculated from unrounded values. Directly affected workers will see their wages rise as the new minimum wage rate will exceed their current hourly pay. Indirectly affected workers have a wage rate just above the new minimum wage (between the new minimum wage and 115% of the new minimum). They will receive a raise as employer pay scales are adjusted upward to reflect the new minimum wage.

Source: Economic Policy Institute Wage Simulation Model; see Technical Methodology by Cooper, Mokhiber, and Zipperer (2019).

View the underlying data on epi.org.