Demographic characteristics of workers who would be affected by increasing the federal minimum wage to $15 by 2025

Group Total estimated workforce (thousands) Directly affected (thousands) Share of group directly affected Indirectly affected (thousands) Share of group indirectly affected Total affected (thousands) Share of group who are affected Group’s share of total affected Change in avg. annual earnings (year-round workers, 2021$)
All workers 151,716 22,055 14.5% 10,126 6.7% 32,181 21.2% 100.0% $3,369
Gender
Women 73,456 13,220 18.0% 5,759 7.8% 18,979 25.8% 59.0% $3,541
Men 78,260 8,835 11.3% 4,367 5.6% 13,202 16.9% 41.0% $3,122
Age
Age 19 or younger 5,382 2,941 54.6% 311 5.8% 3,252 60.4% 10.1% $4,237
Age 20 or older 146,334 19,114 13.1% 9,815 6.7% 28,928 19.8% 89.9% $3,271
Ages 16–24 20,621 9,038 43.8% 1,953 9.5% 10,991 53.3% 34.2% $4,089
Ages 25–39 51,498 6,799 13.2% 3,900 7.6% 10,699 20.8% 33.2% $3,384
Ages 40–54 47,673 3,351 7.0% 2,482 5.2% 5,833 12.2% 18.1% $2,830
Age 55 or older 31,924 2,868 9.0% 1,790 5.6% 4,658 14.6% 14.5% $2,310
Race/ethnicity
White 89,609 10,897 12.2% 5,617 6.3% 16,514 18.4% 51.3% $3,152
Black 18,073 4,185 23.2% 1,471 8.1% 5,656 31.3% 17.6% $3,628
Hispanic 29,794 5,490 18.4% 2,260 7.6% 7,750 26.0% 24.1% $3,490
AAPI 9,966 703 7.1% 462 4.6% 1,165 11.7% 3.6% $4,267
Other race/ethnicity 4,274 781 18.3% 315 7.4% 1,096 25.6% 3.4% $3,493
Not person of color 89,609 10,897 12.2% 5,617 6.3% 16,514 18.4% 51.3% $3,152
Person of color 62,107 11,158 18.0% 4,508 7.3% 15,667 25.2% 48.7% $3,598
Family status
Married parent 38,311 2,693 7.0% 1,868 4.9% 4,561 11.9% 14.2% $2,945
Single parent 13,904 3,059 22.0% 1,336 9.6% 4,395 31.6% 13.7% $3,719
Married, no children 39,159 2,951 7.5% 2,048 5.2% 5,000 12.8% 15.5% $2,603
Unmarried, no children 60,342 13,352 22.1% 4,873 8.1% 18,225 30.2% 56.6% $3,601
Education
Less than high school 15,086 4,994 33.1% 1,352 9.0% 6,346 42.1% 19.7% $3,880
High school 37,567 8,124 21.6% 3,755 10.0% 11,878 31.6% 36.9% $3,365
Some college, no degree 34,837 6,692 19.2% 2,994 8.6% 9,686 27.8% 30.1% $3,384
Associate degree 13,786 1,363 9.9% 964 7.0% 2,326 16.9% 7.2% $2,700
Bachelor’s degree or higher 50,442 882 1.7% 1,062 2.1% 1,944 3.9% 6.0% $2,451
Family income
Less than $25,000 17,353 7,541 43.5% 2,118 12.2% 9,659 55.7% 30.0% $3,900
$25,000–$49,999 29,264 5,213 17.8% 3,304 11.3% 8,518 29.1% 26.5% $3,102
$50,000–$74,999 27,150 3,349 12.3% 1,894 7.0% 5,244 19.3% 16.3% $3,090
$75,000–$99,999 21,768 2,057 9.4% 1,125 5.2% 3,182 14.6% 9.9% $3,134
$100,000–$149,999 28,483 2,063 7.2% 1,028 3.6% 3,091 10.9% 9.6% $3,187
$150,000 or more 26,435 1,244 4.7% 579 2.2% 1,824 6.9% 5.7% $3,213
Family income-to-poverty ratio 30,712
At or below the poverty line 10,807 5,396 49.9% 953 8.8% 6,349 58.7% 19.7% $4,290
100–199% poverty 21,469 6,637 30.9% 2,981 13.9% 9,618 44.8% 29.9% $3,355
200–399% poverty 47,382 6,325 13.3% 4,053 8.6% 10,378 21.9% 32.2% $3,018
400% or above 72,057 3,697 5.1% 2,139 3.0% 5,836 8.1% 18.1% $3,014
Work hours
Part-time (<20 hours) 8,620 2,748 31.9% 679 7.9% 3,427 39.8% 10.6% $1,813
Mid-time (20–34 hours) 22,092 7,632 34.5% 2,134 9.7% 9,766 44.2% 30.3% $3,581
Full-time (35+ hours) 121,004 11,675 9.6% 7,313 6.0% 18,987 15.7% 59.0% $3,541
Industry
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting 2,424 422 17.4% 170 7.0% 592 24.4% 1.8% $3,651
Construction 8,576 716 8.3% 527 6.1% 1,243 14.5% 3.9% $2,112
Manufacturing 16,577 1,400 8.4% 926 5.6% 2,326 14.0% 7.2% $2,468
Wholesale trade 4,084 389 9.5% 221 5.4% 610 14.9% 1.9% $2,621
Retail trade 17,661 4,790 27.1% 1,527 8.6% 6,318 35.8% 19.6% $2,799
Transportation, warehousing, utilities 8,075 594 7.4% 397 4.9% 991 12.3% 3.1% $2,200
Information 3,169 193 6.1% 99 3.1% 292 9.2% 0.9% $2,290
Finance, insurance, real estate 9,640 466 4.8% 338 3.5% 804 8.3% 2.5% $1,897
Professional, scientific, management, technical services 9,654 281 2.9% 191 2.0% 472 4.9% 1.5% $1,846
Administrative, support, and waste management 6,063 1,266 20.9% 502 8.3% 1,768 29.2% 5.5% $2,718
Education 14,853 1,378 9.3% 634 4.3% 2,012 13.5% 6.3% $2,133
Health care 21,813 3,064 14.0% 1,385 6.3% 4,449 20.4% 13.8% $2,673
Arts, entertainment, recreational services 3,077 736 23.9% 333 10.8% 1,069 34.7% 3.3% $3,549
Accommodation 1,819 546 30.0% 248 13.6% 794 43.6% 2.5% $3,694
Restaurants and food service 10,430 4,337 41.6% 1,657 15.9% 5,994 57.5% 18.6% $5,763
Other services 6,104 1,226 20.1% 761 12.5% 1,986 32.5% 6.2% $5,133
Public administration 7,697 251 3.3% 211 2.7% 462 6.0% 1.4% $1,966
Tipped status
Nontipped workers 147,530 20,400 13.8% 8,290 5.6% 28,690 19.4% 89.2% $2,704
Tipped workers 4,186 1,655 39.5% 1,836 43.8% 3,491 83.4% 10.8% $8,831
Sector
For-profit 115,687 19,130 16.5% 8,612 7.4% 27,742 24.0% 86.2% $3,524
Nonprofit 13,286 1,370 10.3% 651 4.9% 2,022 15.2% 6.3% $2,458
Government 22,743 1,555 6.8% 862 3.8% 2,417 10.6% 7.5% $2,345

Notes: Values reflect the population likely to be affected by the proposed changes in the federal minimum wage. Wage changes resulting from scheduled state and local minimum wage laws are accounted for by EPI’s Minimum Wage Simulation Model. Totals may not sum due to rounding. Shares calculated from unrounded values. Directly affected workers will see their wages rise as the new minimum wage rate will exceed their current hourly pay. Indirectly affected workers have a wage rate just above the new minimum wage (between the new minimum wage and 115% of the new minimum). They will receive a raise as employer pay scales are adjusted upward to reflect the new minimum wage. AAPI refers to Asian American/Pacific Islander.

Source: Economic Policy Institute Wage Simulation Model; see Technical Methodology by Cooper, Mokhiber, and Zipperer (2019).

View the underlying data on epi.org.