Summary of impact of increasing the minimum wage to $15 by 2025 (in 2025), by state

State Total estimated state workforce (thousands) Directly affected (thousands) Share of state workforce directly affected Indirectly affected (thousands) Share of state workforce indirectly affected Total affected (thousands) Total share of state workforce affected State’s share of total affected nationally Change in total annual wages of state’s affected workers (2021$, thousands) Change in avg. annual earnings of state’s affected year-round workers (2021$) Real percent change in avg. annual earnings
U.S. total 151,716 22,055 14.5% 10,126 6.7% 32,181 21.2% 100.0% $108,412,570 $3,369 14.5%
Alabama 2,030 532 26.2% 166 8.2% 698 34.4% 2.2% $3,194,115 $4,576 20.8%
Alaska 347 57 16.5% 28 8.2% 86 24.7% 0.3% $230,932 $2,698 10.5%
Arizona 3,089 523 16.9% 314 10.2% 837 27.1% 2.6% $1,358,784 $1,624 6.5%
Arkansas 1,257 323 25.7% 116 9.2% 440 35.0% 1.4% $1,203,226 $2,737 11.2%
California 19,142 5 0.0% 4 0.0% 9 0.0% 0.0% * * *
Colorado 2,748 305 11.1% 247 9.0% 551 20.1% 1.7% $839,531 $1,523 6.1%
Connecticut 1,777 21 1.2% 26 1.5% 47 2.6% 0.1% $295,911 $6,292 25.0%
Delaware 443 86 19.4% 35 7.9% 121 27.3% 0.4% $452,452 $3,740 16.8%
District of Columbia 373 3 0.9% 7 1.9% 10 2.8% 0.0% * * *
Florida 9,128 2,019 22.1% 991 10.9% 3,010 33.0% 9.4% $3,632,684 $1,207 4.6%
Georgia 4,654 1,081 23.2% 425 9.1% 1,506 32.4% 4.7% $6,209,718 $4,124 18.1%
Hawaii 723 124 17.2% 68 9.4% 192 26.6% 0.6% $445,260 $2,318 9.4%
Idaho 731 186 25.4% 67 9.1% 252 34.5% 0.8% $999,938 $3,963 17.6%
Illinois 6,171 56 0.9% 146 2.4% 202 3.3% 0.6% $653,826 $3,230 11.3%
Indiana 3,066 604 19.7% 288 9.4% 892 29.1% 2.8% $3,180,939 $3,566 16.1%
Iowa 1,534 357 23.3% 106 6.9% 463 30.2% 1.4% $1,662,600 $3,591 16.9%
Kansas 1,387 316 22.8% 136 9.8% 452 32.6% 1.4% $1,658,089 $3,670 16.5%
Kentucky 1,883 493 26.2% 158 8.4% 651 34.5% 2.0% $2,720,808 $4,182 19.3%
Louisiana 1,986 539 27.1% 156 7.9% 695 35.0% 2.2% $3,355,384 $4,826 21.1%
Maine 621 85 13.7% 63 10.2% 148 23.8% 0.5% $253,583 $1,713 7.4%
Maryland 3,048 55 1.8% 46 1.5% 101 3.3% 0.3% $856,171 $8,477 32.9%
Massachusetts 3,507 23 0.7% 85 2.4% 108 3.1% 0.3% $505,330 $4,675 15.7%
Michigan 4,441 881 19.8% 358 8.1% 1,239 27.9% 3.9% $3,953,582 $3,191 14.6%
Minnesota 2,802 247 8.8% 136 4.9% 384 13.7% 1.2% $772,978 $2,015 9.9%
Mississippi 1,207 369 30.6% 115 9.6% 485 40.1% 1.5% $2,329,863 $4,808 21.0%
Missouri 2,780 597 21.5% 235 8.5% 832 29.9% 2.6% $2,068,545 $2,485 10.8%
Montana 467 108 23.0% 47 10.1% 155 33.2% 0.5% $436,270 $2,818 13.0%
Nebraska 956 195 20.4% 92 9.6% 287 30.0% 0.9% $864,026 $3,007 13.2%
Nevada 1,413 297 21.0% 198 14.0% 495 35.0% 1.5% $968,993 $1,959 7.2%
New Hampshire 689 101 14.7% 52 7.5% 153 22.2% 0.5% $492,639 $3,223 15.9%
New Jersey 4,407 33 0.8% 111 2.5% 144 3.3% 0.4% $828,562 $5,761 19.8%
New Mexico 931 262 28.2% 80 8.6% 342 36.7% 1.1% $1,035,801 $3,028 12.9%
New York 9,437 452 4.8% 531 5.6% 983 10.4% 3.1% $1,575,765 $1,603 6.3%
North Carolina 4,572 1,073 23.5% 437 9.6% 1,509 33.0% 4.7% $6,233,002 $4,129 18.2%
North Dakota 380 64 16.7% 32 8.3% 95 25.0% 0.3% $301,682 $3,169 14.5%
Ohio 5,367 1,199 22.3% 446 8.3% 1,645 30.7% 5.1% $5,805,013 $3,529 16.3%
Oklahoma 1,731 471 27.2% 136 7.8% 606 35.0% 1.9% $2,820,891 $4,652 20.8%
Oregon 1,864 128 6.9% 112 6.0% 241 12.9% 0.7% $182,946 $762 3.1%
Pennsylvania 5,965 1,286 21.6% 474 8.0% 1,760 29.5% 5.5% $7,038,503 $3,999 18.9%
Rhode Island 519 75 14.5% 37 7.2% 112 21.6% 0.3% $328,087 $2,921 13.3%
South Carolina 2,175 541 24.9% 189 8.7% 730 33.6% 2.3% $3,335,883 $4,569 20.5%
South Dakota 418 89 21.4% 41 9.7% 130 31.1% 0.4% $402,426 $3,094 13.6%
Tennessee 2,979 630 21.2% 272 9.1% 902 30.3% 2.8% $3,640,497 $4,035 17.9%
Texas 13,509 3,351 24.8% 1,113 8.2% 4,464 33.0% 13.9% $20,562,056 $4,606 19.9%
Utah 1,402 325 23.2% 117 8.4% 442 31.6% 1.4% $1,395,606 $3,155 15.2%
Vermont 303 46 15.1% 28 9.2% 74 24.3% 0.2% $154,889 $2,107 9.1%
Virginia 4,074 603 14.8% 332 8.2% 936 23.0% 2.9% $2,506,232 $2,679 11.4%
Washington 3,441 3 0.1% 381 11.1% 384 11.2% 1.2% $265,352 $691 2.8%
West Virginia 715 189 26.4% 62 8.6% 250 35.0% 0.8% $1,003,098 $4,006 17.9%
Wisconsin 2,854 586 20.5% 257 9.0% 843 29.5% 2.6% $2,960,664 $3,511 16.8%
Wyoming 275 63 22.9% 25 9.0% 88 31.9% 0.3% $356,967 $4,070 18.0%

Notes: Values reflect the result of the proposed change in the federal minimum wage. Wage changes resulting from scheduled state and local minimum wage laws are accounted for by EPI’s Minimum Wage Simulation Model. Totals may not sum due to rounding. Shares calculated from unrounded values. Directly affected workers would see their wages rise as the new minimum wage rate will exceed their current hourly pay. Indirectly affected workers have a wage rate just above the new minimum wage (between the new minimum wage and 115% of the new minimum). They would receive a raise as employer pay scales are adjusted upward to reflect the new minimum wage. Values marked “*” cannot be displayed because of sample size restrictions or because the affected number of workers is less than 1,500.

Source: Economic Policy Institute Wage Simulation Model; see Technical Methodology by Cooper, Mokhiber, and Zipperer (2019).

View the underlying data on epi.org.