Demographic characteristics of women workers affected by an increase of the federal minimum wage to $15 by 2025

Group Total estimated workforce (thousands) Directly affected (thousands) Share of group directly affected Indirectly affected (thousands) Share of group indirectly affected Total affected (thousands) Share of group who are affected Group’s share of total affected
All women workers 73,456 13,220 18.0% 5,759 7.8% 18,979 25.8% 100.0%
Age
Age 19 or younger 2,797 1,558 55.7% 148 5.3% 1,706 61.0% 9.0%
Age 20 or older 70,659 11,662 16.5% 5,610 7.9% 17,273 24.4% 91.0%
Ages 16–24 10,336 4,828 46.7% 936 9.1% 5,764 55.8% 30.4%
Ages 25–39 24,227 3,971 16.4% 2,070 8.5% 6,041 24.9% 31.8%
Ages 40–54 23,080 2,438 10.6% 1,601 6.9% 4,039 17.5% 21.3%
Age 55 or older 15,813 1,983 12.5% 1,151 7.3% 3,135 19.8% 16.5%
Race/ethnicity
White 43,466 6,789 15.6% 3,450 7.9% 10,239 23.6% 53.9%
Black 9,884 2,524 25.5% 835 8.4% 3,359 34.0% 17.7%
Hispanic 13,091 3,003 22.9% 1,014 7.7% 4,017 30.7% 21.2%
AAPI 4,851 440 9.1% 281 5.8% 720 14.8% 3.8%
Other race/ethnicity 2,164 465 21.5% 179 8.3% 644 29.7% 3.4%
Not person of color 43,466 6,789 15.6% 3,450 7.9% 10,239 23.6% 53.9%
Person of color 29,989 6,431 21.4% 2,309 7.7% 8,740 29.1% 46.1%
Family status
Married parent 16,622 1,872 11.3% 1,111 6.7% 2,983 17.9% 15.7%
Single parent 9,579 2,448 25.6% 977 10.2% 3,424 35.7% 18.0%
Married, no children 18,563 2,004 10.8% 1,305 7.0% 3,309 17.8% 17.4%
Unmarried, no children 28,692 6,897 24.0% 2,366 8.2% 9,263 32.3% 48.8%
Education
Less than high school 5,871 2,554 43.5% 496 8.4% 3,049 51.9% 16.1%
High school 16,299 4,840 29.7% 2,050 12.6% 6,890 42.3% 36.3%
Some college, no degree 17,452 4,250 24.4% 1,835 10.5% 6,085 34.9% 32.1%
Associate degree 7,672 956 12.5% 663 8.6% 1,619 21.1% 8.5%
Bachelor’s degree or higher 26,161 620 2.4% 716 2.7% 1,336 5.1% 7.0%
Family income
Less than $25,000 9,237 4,503 48.8% 1,071 11.6% 5,574 60.3% 29.4%
$25,000–$49,999 14,503 3,198 22.0% 1,806 12.5% 5,004 34.5% 26.4%
$50,000–$74,999 12,993 2,094 16.1% 1,162 8.9% 3,255 25.1% 17.2%
$75,000–$99,999 10,395 1,235 11.9% 712 6.8% 1,947 18.7% 10.3%
$100,000–$149,999 13,413 1,184 8.8% 631 4.7% 1,816 13.5% 9.6%
$150,000 or more 12,238 677 5.5% 341 2.8% 1,018 8.3% 5.4%
Family income-to-poverty ratio
At or below the poverty line 6,177 3,349 54.2% 498 8.1% 3,847 62.3% 20.3%
100–199% poverty 10,838 3,959 36.5% 1,606 14.8% 5,565 51.3% 29.3%
200–399% poverty 22,730 3,807 16.7% 2,341 10.3% 6,148 27.0% 32.4%
400% or above 33,711 2,105 6.2% 1,313 3.9% 3,418 10.1% 18.0%
Work hours
Part-time (< 20 hours) 5,555 1,745 31.4% 469 8.4% 2,214 39.9% 11.7%
Mid-time (20–34 hours) 14,062 4,775 34.0% 1,414 10.1% 6,188 44.0% 32.6%
Full-time (35+ hours) 53,839 6,700 12.4% 3,876 7.2% 10,577 19.6% 55.7%
Industry
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting 502 102 20.3% 35 7.1% 137 27.4% 0.7%
Construction 850 83 9.7% 51 6.0% 134 15.7% 0.7%
Manufacturing 4,832 702 14.5% 395 8.2% 1,098 22.7% 5.8%
Wholesale trade 1,238 157 12.7% 83 6.7% 240 19.4% 1.3%
Retail trade 8,751 2,918 33.3% 872 10.0% 3,790 43.3% 20.0%
Transportation, warehousing, utilities 2,054 210 10.2% 135 6.6% 345 16.8% 1.8%
Information 1,306 113 8.7% 59 4.5% 172 13.1% 0.9%
Finance, insurance, real estate 5,357 316 5.9% 242 4.5% 558 10.4% 2.9%
Professional, scientific, management, technical services 4,328 202 4.7% 139 3.2% 340 7.9% 1.8%
Administrative, support, and waste management 2,433 608 25.0% 214 8.8% 821 33.8% 4.3%
Education 10,155 995 9.8% 476 4.7% 1,470 14.5% 7.7%
Health care 17,200 2,616 15.2% 1,190 6.9% 3,807 22.1% 20.1%
Arts, entertainment, recreational services 1,442 385 26.7% 171 11.9% 557 38.6% 2.9%
Accommodation 1,055 387 36.7% 134 12.7% 521 49.4% 2.7%
Restaurants and food service 5,440 2,494 45.8% 929 17.1% 3,423 62.9% 18.0%
Other services 3,089 787 25.5% 511 16.5% 1,298 42.0% 6.8%
Public administration 3,423 145 4.2% 123 3.6% 268 7.8% 1.4%
Tipped status
Nontipped workers 70,626 12,010 17.0% 4,574 6.5% 16,584 23.5% 87.4%
Tipped worker 2,830 1,210 42.8% 1,185 41.9% 2,395 84.6% 12.6%
Sector
For-profit 52,042 11,202 21.5% 4,703 9.0% 15,905 30.6% 83.8%
Nonprofit 8,671 960 11.1% 475 5.5% 1,436 16.6% 7.6%
Government 12,743 1,057 8.3% 581 4.6% 1,638 12.9% 8.6%

Notes: Values reflect the population likely to be affected by the proposed change in the federal minimum wage. Wage changes resulting from scheduled state and local minimum wage laws are accounted for by EPI’s Minimum Wage Simulation Model. Totals may not sum due to rounding. Shares calculated from unrounded values. Directly affected workers will see their wages rise as the new minimum wage rate will exceed their current hourly pay. Indirectly affected workers have a wage rate just above the new minimum wage (between the new minimum wage and 115% of the new minimum). They will receive a raise as employer pay scales are adjusted upward to reflect the new minimum wage. AAPI refers to Asian American/Pacific Islander.

Source: Economic Policy Institute Wage Simulation Model; see Technical Methodology by Cooper, Mokhiber, and Zipperer (2019).

View the underlying data on epi.org.