Demographic characteristics of Black workers affected by an increase of the federal minimum wage to $15 by 2025

Group Total estimated workforce (thousands) Directly affected (thousands) Share of group directly affected Indirectly affected (thousands) Share of group indirectly affected Total affected (thousands) Share of group who are affected Group’s share of total affected
All workers 18,073 4,185 23.2% 1,471 8.1% 5,656 31.3% 100.0%
Gender
Women 9,884 2,524 25.5% 835 8.4% 3,359 34.0% 59.4%
Men 8,190 1,661 20.3% 636 7.8% 2,297 28.0% 40.6%
Age
Age 19 or younger 583 336 57.7% 24 4.2% 360 61.9% 6.4%
Age 20 or older 17,491 3,848 22.0% 1,447 8.3% 5,295 30.3% 93.6%
Ages 16–24 2,573 1,386 53.9% 188 7.3% 1,574 61.2% 27.8%
Ages 25–39 6,421 1,559 24.3% 621 9.7% 2,181 34.0% 38.6%
Ages 40–54 5,759 712 12.4% 419 7.3% 1,131 19.6% 20.0%
Age 55 or older 3,321 527 15.9% 242 7.3% 769 23.2% 13.6%
Family status
Married parent 3,041 339 11.1% 209 6.9% 547 18.0% 9.7%
Single parent 3,075 909 29.6% 307 10.0% 1,216 39.5% 21.5%
Married, no children 3,113 391 12.5% 216 6.9% 607 19.5% 10.7%
Unmarried, no children 8,844 2,546 28.8% 740 8.4% 3,286 37.2% 58.1%
Education
Less than high school 1,480 676 45.7% 129 8.7% 806 54.5% 14.3%
High school 5,300 1,709 32.2% 568 10.7% 2,276 43.0% 40.3%
Some college, no degree 5,235 1,393 26.6% 497 9.5% 1,890 36.1% 33.4%
Associate degree 1,687 262 15.5% 150 8.9% 412 24.4% 7.3%
Bachelor’s degree or higher 4,371 144 3.3% 127 2.9% 271 6.2% 4.8%
Family income
Less than $25,000 3,158 1,762 55.8% 313 9.9% 2,075 65.7% 36.7%
$25,000–$49,999 4,690 1,117 23.8% 604 12.9% 1,721 36.7% 30.4%
$50,000–$74,999 3,470 570 16.4% 268 7.7% 838 24.1% 14.8%
$75,000–$99,999 2,343 297 12.7% 131 5.6% 428 18.3% 7.6%
$100,000–$149,999 2,532 245 9.7% 101 4.0% 345 13.6% 6.1%
$150,000 or more 1,697 106 6.2% 46 2.7% 151 8.9% 2.7%
Family income-to-poverty ratio
At or below the poverty line 1,967 1,187 60.4% 133 6.8% 1,320 67.1% 23.3%
100–199% poverty 3,580 1,478 41.3% 510 14.3% 1,988 55.5% 35.2%
200–399% poverty 6,395 1,100 17.2% 619 9.7% 1,720 26.9% 30.4%
400% or above 6,131 419 6.8% 208 3.4% 628 10.2% 11.1%
Work hours
Part-time (< 20 hours) 901 324 35.9% 56 6.2% 379 42.1% 6.7%
Mid-time (20–34 hours) 2,854 1,328 46.5% 219 7.7% 1,547 54.2% 27.3%
Full-time (35+ hours) 14,318 2,533 17.7% 1,196 8.4% 3,729 26.0% 65.9%
Industry
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting 94 27 28.4% 7 7.9% 34 36.3% 0.6%
Construction 471 59 12.6% 38 8.1% 97 20.7% 1.7%
Manufacturing 1,635 313 19.1% 172 10.5% 484 29.6% 8.6%
Wholesale trade 318 67 21.0% 30 9.4% 96 30.4% 1.7%
Retail trade 2,129 831 39.0% 188 8.8% 1,019 47.9% 18.0%
Transportation, warehousing, utilities 1,422 186 13.1% 106 7.4% 291 20.5% 5.2%
Information 344 35 10.1% 19 5.4% 53 15.5% 0.9%
Finance, insurance, real estate 1,018 87 8.5% 55 5.4% 141 13.9% 2.5%
Professional, scientific, management, technical services 622 33 5.3% 20 3.2% 53 8.5% 0.9%
Administrative, support, and waste management 1,006 311 30.9% 104 10.3% 415 41.2% 7.3%
Education 1,616 251 15.5% 95 5.9% 346 21.4% 6.1%
Health care 3,686 828 22.5% 299 8.1% 1,126 30.6% 19.9%
Arts, entertainment, recreational services 307 104 34.0% 33 10.7% 137 44.7% 2.4%
Accommodation 275 118 42.8% 37 13.6% 155 56.4% 2.7%
Restaurants and food service 1,274 707 55.5% 145 11.4% 851 66.8% 15.1%
Other services 592 162 27.3% 73 12.4% 235 39.7% 4.2%
Public administration 1,266 68 5.4% 51 4.0% 120 9.4% 2.1%
Tipped status
Nontipped workers 17,726 3,998 22.6% 1,330 7.5% 5,328 30.1% 94.2%
Tipped worker 347 186 53.7% 141 40.7% 328 94.5% 5.8%
Sector
For-profit 13,121 3,552 27.1% 1,193 9.1% 4,745 36.2% 83.9%
Nonprofit 1,547 257 16.6% 101 6.5% 358 23.1% 6.3%
Government 3,405 376 11.0% 177 5.2% 553 16.2% 9.8%

Notes: Values reflect the population likely to be affected by the proposed change in the federal minimum wage. Wage changes resulting from scheduled state and local minimum wage laws are accounted for by EPI’s Minimum Wage Simulation Model. Totals may not sum due to rounding. Shares calculated from unrounded values. Directly affected workers will see their wages rise as the new minimum wage rate will exceed their current hourly pay. Indirectly affected workers have a wage rate just above the new minimum wage (between the new minimum wage and 115% of the new minimum). They will receive a raise as employer pay scales are adjusted upward to reflect the new minimum wage.

Source: Economic Policy Institute Wage Simulation Model; see Technical Methodology by Cooper, Mokhiber, and Zipperer (2019).

View the underlying data on epi.org.