The residential long-term care industry disproportionately employs immigrant women: Shares of immigrants in the residential long-term care workforce, in specific occupation groups within that workforce, and in the overall workforce, by gender and citizenship status

Group Naturalized citizen women Non-U.S. citizen women Naturalized citizen men Non-U.S. citizen men
All workers 3.9% 3.3% 4.3% 5.4%
All residential long-term care workers 7.5% 5.3% 2.1% 1.7%
Nursing homes 8.0% 5.5% 1.7% 1.8%
Residential care facilities 6.6% 5.0% 3.0% 1.7%
Direct care workers 10.0% 8.4% 1.7% 2.0%
Registered nurses 9.4% 3.9% 2.0% 0.6%
Licensed practical nurses 8.6% 4.2% 1.3% 1.8%
Food service workers 4.3% 4.6% 3.6% 2.6%
Cleaning and maintenance workers 6.6% 10.0% 3.2% 3.6%

Notes: To ensure sufficient sample sizes and reflect the “normal” pre-pandemic state of this industry, this figure draws from pooled 2015–2019 microdata. Direct care workers are those in the occupational categories “nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides” and “personal and home care aides.”

Source: Authors’ analysis of 2015–2019 Current Population Survey microdata.

View the underlying data on epi.org.