Women and non-U.S. citizens are less likely to have benefits than other residential long-term care workers: Share of residential long-term care workers with access to employer-provided benefits, by gender, race/ethnicity, and citizenship status

Group Employer-provided retirement benefits Employer-provided health insurance benefits
All residential long-term care workers 24.7% 45.4%
Men 29.4% 52.4%
Women 23.6% 43.8%
White 27.4% 44.7%
Black 21.2% 46.4%
Latinx 20.6% 44.5%
AAPI 25.7% 51.4%
U.S.-born 24.6% 45.0%
Naturalized U.S. citizens 28.6% 51.9%
Non-U.S. citizens 20.1% 40.8%

Notes: AAPI stands for Asian American and Pacific Islander. To ensure sufficient sample sizes and reflect the “normal” pre-pandemic state of this industry, this figure draws from pooled 2015–2019 microdata. For definitions of citizenship status, see extended notes.

Naturalized U.S. citizens are foreign-born workers who have become U.S. citizens. Non-U.S. citizens includes foreign-born workers who are permanent residents, residents with legal temporary status, and undocumented residents.

Source: Authors’ analysis of 2015–2019 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata.

View the underlying data on epi.org.