Restrictions on teachers unions in five states reduced spending on teacher compensation by 6%: Change in average school district spending on teacher salaries and benefits from 2009–2010 to 2015–2016 school years in states that restricted teachers unions in 2011–2012, relative to all other states, regression adjusted

Change in expenditure
Salaries -5.0%
Benefits -9.7%
Total compensation -6.0%

Notes: The five states are Idaho, Indiana, Michigan, Tennessee, and Wisconsin. Data are for elementary and secondary public school districts. Results are statistically significant at the 1% level (p < 0.01). All models include covariates for district characteristics, community characteristics, year dummies, and state dummies.

Source: Authors’ estimates using a data set linking Local Education Agency Finance Survey (F-33) microdata from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES 2009–2010, 2015–2016) and the Stanford Education Data Archive for the same years.

View the underlying data on