Low-paid workers are disproportionately women and women of color: Women in the overall and low-paid workforces by race/ethnicity and nativity, 2018

Share of overall workforce Share of low-paid workforce
AAPI women 3.0% 4.3%
Black women 6.3% 9.7%
Latinas 7.7% 16.0%
Native American women 0.3% 0.6%
White, non-Hispanic women 29.2% 31.3%
Women born outside U.S. 7.6% 15.0%


Note: The low-paid workforce consists of workers in the 40 lowest-paying occupations. See Appendix I of Tucker and Vogtman 2020 for more information on the occupations. AAPI stands for Asian American/Pacific Islander.

Source: Adapted with permission from When Hard Work is Not Enough: Women in Low-Paid Jobs (Tucker and Vogtman 2020). Calculations based on 2018 American Survey Data from Ruggles et al. 2020.

View the underlying data on epi.org.